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发布时间:2018-08-10 14:32

简单句、并列句、复合句

1. 简单句

句型:主语+谓语

只包含一个主谓结构,而句子的各个结构都只由单词或短语表示。

 

2. 并列句

句型: 简单句+并列连词(或连接副词)+简单句

*由两个或两个以上的简单句并列连接起来的句子叫并列句。并列句中的各简单句意义同等重要,相互之间没有从属关系,是平行并列的关系。它们之间用连词连结。

1、联合关系:

常用的连词有and, not only…but(also), neither…nor等。

Eg. Tom doesn’t smoke, nor does his brother.

2、转折关系

常用的连词有but, yet, still, however, while(而,然而)when(那时,然后)等。

Eg. He got up very early, (and) yet he failed to catch the morning train.

We played outside till sunset, when it began to rain.

She is tired, (but) still she will make another test.

*yet still是连接副词,又叫半连接句。

*however(然而,不过,但是)意义接近yet,可放在句首、句末或插入句子中间。

 

3、选择关系:

常用的连词有or(或者,还是,否则),otherwise, or else, either…or等。

Eg. Hurry up, or we’ll be late for school.

 

4、因果关系

连词有:for, so, thus, therefore, and so 等。

Eg. He studied hard, thus he succeeded in passing the exam.

    The Frenchman coughed loudly, so he decided to go and get some medicine for it.

*for 表示附加或推断的理由、原因。   Thereforeso更正式,and so 较口语化。

 

3. 复合句

句型:主句+连词+从句;或连词+从句+主句(包含一个主句、一个或一个以上的从句,或只包含一个从句,但有两个或两个以上的主句的句子叫复合句。)

 

动词时态,被动语态

一、一般现在时

1.一般现在时表示经常发生、习惯性动作、客观真理、科学事实、格言,目前的特征、状态、能力等。

 

2.主句是一般将来时,时间、条件状语从句中用一般现在时表示将来。如:

I’ll go there after I finish my work./ If it rains tomorrow, I won’t go there.

 

3.在以here, there开头的句子里,go, come等少数动词的一般在时表示正在发生的动作。

例如:There goes the bell.铃响了。There comes the bus.汽车来了。Here she comes.她来了。

 

二、现在进行时

1.表示正在进行的动作。

2.表示按计划安排即将发生的动作。

例如:She is leaving for Beijing.她要去北京。

He is working as a teacher tomorrow.从明天起他要做老师。

My father is coming to see me this Saturday.这个星期六我爸爸要来看我。

3.代替一般现在时,描绘更加生动。

例如:The Changjiang River is flowing into the east.江水滚滚向东流。The sun is rising in the east.太阳从东方冉冉升起。

4.大多数动词可用于进行时,但也有些动词不用于进行时。常见的有:exist, live, understand, mean, owe, belong to, know, doubt, suppose, remember, forget,

believe,trust,want,wish,refuse,like,hate,dislike,prefer,mind,hope等。

 

三、现在完成时

1.表示过去发生的动作对现在产生的影响或结果,或说话时已完成的动作。

例如:I have finished the report./ She has cleaned the room.

2.表示从过去开始,待续到现在的动作或状态,往往和“for…”, “since…”表述的一段时间状语连用。例如:He has learned English for six years./ They have worked here since they left college.

3.现在完成时与一般过去时的区别:

1)用两种时态来表述发生在过去的某一动作,现在完成时强调这一过去动作对现在产生的影响或结果,而一般过去时只表达过去的动作或状态,和现在关系不大。例如:She has cleaned the room. It’s very clean now.(此句has cleaned就不能改为cleaned.一是因为cleaned与现状无关,二是因为一般过去时不可突然跳到It’s…这样的一般现在时。)

2)汉语中的等词常用完成表达,如:I have seen that film.(我看过那部电影了。)但是如果是在特定的过去时间看了做过,就不可用完成时而必须用一般过去进来表达。例如:When did you see that film? I saw it yesterday.(你什么时候看了那部电影?我昨天看的。)不能说:When have you seen that film? I have seen it yesterday.

4.表示曾经到过某地(人已回来)“have/has been to”,表示到某地去了(还未回来)“have/has gone to”.例如:

——Where is Li Hua? He has gone to the reading-room.

——She knows a lot about Shanghai.She has been there.

5.短暂动词(即瞬间动词),join, lose, buy, borrow, leave, go, come, arrive, die, marry, finish, complete, begin, start, break out等,在完成时态中,其肯定式不能和表示一段时间的状语连用。例如不能说:He has finished the work for three hours.要翻译他已完成工作三小时了。可采用1“agoHe finished the work three hours ago.2延续法He has been through(with)the work for three hours.3“sinceIt is/has been three hours since he finished the work.

 

四、现在完成进行时

1.用来表示从过去某一时刻开始一直持续到现在(或今后还要继续一去)的动作。例如:He has been doing the maths problems since 8:00./ It has been raining for two days.

2.凡是不能用于现在进行时的动词均不能用于现成完成进行时。

 

五、一般过去时

    表达特定的过去时间内发生的动作或存在的状况,或过去某一时间内经常发生或反复发生的动作或行为。

 

六、过去进行时

1.表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内正在进行的动作(这一过去时间须用时间状语表示)。例如:He was preparing his lecture all day yesterday.

2.表示动作在另一过去动作发生时进行。例如:They were still working when I left.

3.用在两个过去进行时动作同时发生。例如:I was writing while he was watching TV.

4.表示过去将来动作。例如:He said she was arriving the next day.

 

七、过去完成时

1.表示在过去某一时间以前已经完成的动作。例如:He had shut the door before the dog came up./ Everything had been all right up till this morning.

2.表示动作或状态从过去某个时刻开始一直延续到另一个过去时刻才完成,甚至还要继续下去。例如:At the age of ten, he had learned 500 English words. He had been ill for a week when we learned about it.

3.常用hope, expect, think, intend, want, suppose等动词的过去完成时来表示未实现的希望、打算或意图。例如:We had expected that you would be able to win the match.

 

八、一般将来时

一般将来时表示将来要发生的动作和存在的状况。有下列一些形式:

1.will/shall do (侧重将来行为,不突出计划安排去做某事)

2.be going to do (主观上打算或客观上可能发生)

3.be doing (按计划将要发生,常和表示最近的将来时间连用)

4.be about to do (按计划即将发生)

 

九、将来完成时

用来表示在将来某个时刻(前)将完成的动作。常和by短语,when, before引起的时间状语连用。例如:We will have finished senior Book 2 by the end of this term.

 


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