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发布时间:2018-08-10 07:03

1.宾语从句:怎样判断出一个从句是宾语从句?在动词后作宾语(动宾):

 Do you know where he comes from划线部分是动词know的宾语.

 2.在有些接双宾结构的动词后作宾语:

 He asked me when we would leave此句中me与从句when-分别是ask的宾语。

 3在介词后作宾语(介宾)Let’s talk about how we solve this problem.

 4I’m sorry…, I’m afraid…, I’m sure…等结构后的句子也被认为是宾语从句.

 宾语从句需注意的时态问题:

1主句若是一般现在时,从句根据不同情况用不同时态。

He says (that) he will have a walk soon. soon指将来,从句用将来时)

 The teacher asks who is the cleverest in the school. (暗指目前谁最聪明,从句用现在时)

 want to know who came here late this morning. (今早已过去,从句用过去时)

 2主句若是一般过去时,从句也要用过去时。

 He wondered if I would come.        She told me that her son had got well.

 She said that she liked watching TV.      We thought Jim was wrong.

 3无论主句是何时态,从句若表客观真理,要用一般现在时。

Mr. Li said the moon is smaller than the earth.

4宾语从句无论有何引导词,句子都要用陈述句语序。

 Could you tell me when you will get back to Wuhan?(不是will you

 Do you know which sweater she is wearing? (不是is she)

2.状语从句:此处所说的状语从句用法仅包括条件(ifunless引导)状语从句和时间(when等引导,见下文)状语从句。状语从句需注意以下问题:

1主句若是一般将来时、祈使句或含不表过去的情态动词等,则if(如果), unless(除非)when(当…的时候), as soon as(一…就…)before, after, until, till, as(当…的时候)所引导的状语从句用一般现在时。

You may take a rest when you finish doing your work. (主句有情态动词)

Could you look after my son after I leave home?

(情态动词could是为了让语气委婉,并不指过去时,从句仍用一般现在时)

 will go out as soon as it stops raining this afternoon.    (主句是将来时)

 Wait for your brother at the bus station until he arrives(主句是祈使句)

2而主句若是一般过去时,从句也要用表过去时的适当时态,如:

 I would give the money to the charity if I had a million dollars.

 When he got to the park, his classmates had left.

 My son ran towards me as soon as he saw me on the street.

3.定语从句:定语从句是指修饰前面名词或代词的句子。从句前面的名词或代词叫先行词,从句中的引导词叫关系代词或关系副词。关系代词who只指人,which只指物。that既可指人又可指物。whose 后必须跟有名词,既指人,也可指物。关系词作主语时,不可省略,作宾语时可省略。whom只指人,只作宾语。关系副词where指“在那里”,when指“在那时”。              (以下所给例子凡斜体字部分均作定语从句。)

She is a girl who / that is beautiful and kind-hearted.  The girl who / that is tall is my sister.

(以上关系词作主语,不可省略。)

 She is a girl (who / whom / that) I know very well. (关系词做know的宾语,可以省略。)

 That boy whose hair is very long is my brother.        I own a bike whose price is high.

 (关系词whose表所属,后需接名词。前句指人,译为“这个孩子的”;后句指物,译为“这个自行车的”。)

I bought a watch (which / that) I paid 100 yuan for. (指物, 作pay的宾语,可以省略

I prefer a place which / that is clean and quiet(关系词译为“这个地方”,主语,不可省)

I prefer a place where I can live a quiet life. (关系词译为“在这个地方”,是地点副词。)

I shall never forget the day when a boy helped me find my dog. (“在这一天”,是时间副词)

4.wishhope:1wish既可接to do sth.  也可接sb + to do sth.  也可接that从句.

I wish to spend my summer holiday in Qingdao.    I wish you to join my party this Sunday.

I wish (that) I could be a scientist(注:接that从句时,从句用虚拟语气。)

2hopeto do sth. that从句但不接sb to do sth.

I hope to receive a letter from you some day.    I hope you will get well soon.

I hope (that) everything goes well.  (接从句时不用虚拟)

5.thanks forthanks to: Thanks for your helping me with the work.

 (此句表达对对方为自己做了某事的感谢,后无补充的结果。)

 Thanks to your suggestion, I didn’t make such mistakes.

 (此句表达感谢由于某方所做的有利的事,出现了后面的结果。)

6.感官动词用法之一:see, hear, listen to, watch, notice等词,后接宾语,再接动词原形或ing形式。前者表全过程,后者表正在进行。句中有频率词时,以上的词也常跟动词原形。 I heard someone knocking at the door when I fell asleep. (我入睡时有人正敲门)

 I heard someone knock at the door three times. (听的是全过程)

 often watch my classmates play volleyball after school. (此处有频率词often)

 若以上词用于被动语态,后面原有动词原形改为带to不定式:

 We saw him go into the restaurant.  He was seen to go into the restaurant.

 I hear the boy cry every day.  The boy is heard to cry every day.

7.感官动词用法之二look, sound, smell, taste, feel可当系动词,后接形容词。

He looks angry.  It sounds good.  The flowers smell beautiful.  The sweets taste sweet. The silk feelssoft.   I felt tired.   They all looked tired.

 这些动词都不用于被动语态。如:The sweets are tasted sweet.是错误的。

 注意:如果加介词like, 则后不可接形容词,而接名词或代词:

 He looks like his mother.  That sounds like a good idea.   It sounds like great fun.

 It smells like a flower.   It tastes like salt.

8.findthink部分用法: find / think + 宾语 + 宾语补足语(代替宾从)

 宾补有以下情况:1.名词短语 John found his son a clever boy.

 2.形容词短语 Mrs. Smith thinks her husband kind of lazy.

 3.有时宾补后可接带to不定式  I found it hard to fool the girl.

 4find后也有v-ing形式作宾语补足语。I found him reading a book just now.

9.would like / want / feel like: 1would like,和want类似:

◇都可接名词短语:I would like / want another three desks. 

◇都可接带to 不定式:I would like / want to go out for a walk. 

◇都可接sb,然后再跟带to 不定式: I would like you to give me a hand.

2feel like:  ◇后也可接名词短语:Do you feel like some tea?

 ◇后若接动词,须用动词ing形式:Do you feel like having a walk? 

I don’t feel like drinking tea.     【注:feel like常用于疑问句或否定句中。】

10.词序易错的短语1形容词修饰不定代词或不定副词,形容词在后面。

Is there anything delicious in the fridge?     Nothing serious.  

There is something wrong with the computer.     I want to go somewhere warm.

 2else修饰疑问词和不定代词、不定副词,也放在后面。

 What else can you see in the picture?   Who else is in the room?

 Do you have anything else to say?   Where else can you see it?

 3enough修饰形容词和副词,enough 放在后面

 This sweater is cheap enough.  Nemo is old enough to work.

 He ran fast enough to catch up with the dog.   She doesn’t listen carefully enough.

11.对“评价”、“天气”的提问之区别1What do you think of ?=

 How do you like ? =How / What do you feel about…?

“你对…怎么看?”(How?句中有like,是动词。) 

2What’s the weather like in? = How is the weather in?“…的天气什么样?

(What?句中有like,是介词,“像”。而How?句中无like.)

12.take, cost, pay, spend区别

1It + take + sb + some time + to do sth      It took us half an hour to cut down the tree.

 2 + cost + sb + 钱:  The bag cost me thirty yuan.

   cost后无sb, 则译作“价钱是”:  The bag costs 30 Yuan.

 3+ pay + sb +  + for sth    I paid the seller 200 Yuan for the bike..

(pay后所加内容可视具体情况取舍。切记for后接的是物,而不是人或钱。)

 4 + spend + 时间 + on sth / (in) doing sth.

   The girl spent two hours (in) searching the Internet.

   The girl always spends much money on her clothes.

   spend 有时可指“度过”:spend holiday / weekends / winter

13.双宾结构pass / give / teach / offer / lend / send / sell / call / show / buy / ask / tell 等可加双宾结构。也就是接sb + sth.  Pass me the book, please.  He gave us some pens.

 其中pass, give, offer, lend, send, sell, show等也可接sth + to sb.  : lend the book to me.

 buy, build等可接sth + for sb.   My brother bought a dictionary for me.

另外,若sth是代词时,不用双宾结构。Please show it to me.   而不说show me it.

14.部分词作连词与介词:(连词接句子,介词接名词或代词)

 Keep careful when you are listening to the teacher(斜体部分是句子,when是连词)

 Keep careful when listening to the teacher(斜体部分是名词短语,when是介词)

 类似的,while, than, before, after, as, since, until等。

 如:I’ll wait until I hear from her. (连词) I’ll wait until hearing from her. (介词)

 I’ll wait until next Friday / September / 11:00. (接的都是表时间的短语,until是介词)

15.动词ed与动词ing作形容词用法之一: 1. 动词ed作形容词:表示被动或已发生,常作定语。The boy named Peter is my friend.  那个叫做彼得的男孩是我的朋友。

此处是后置定语,划线部分起修饰作用,下同。

He’s eating fried chicken. “他在吃鸡。”做chicken的前置定语

There is no time left“没时间剩余了。”做time的后置定语。

I have read a novel written by Lu Xun.我读了一部鲁迅写的小说。做后置定语。下同。

He lives in a house built twenty years ago他住在一个二十年前被建造的房子里。

一般来说,定语部分不只一个词时, 常放在名词的后面。

 2动词ing作形容词:表示正在进行或表示功能,常作定语。

 the crying boy,  a running bus,  the rising sun,  a bus running on the road,

 the boy crying in the corner  (以上表示正在进行)

sitting room,  the bathing suit,  cutting machine,  writing paper…… (本行表示功能)

16.动词ed与动词ing作形容词用法之二 由一些及物动词派生而来,和心理感受有关,但ed修饰人,ing常修饰物。 以下词凡是译为“使…”的及物动词,其ed形式的形容词都译为“感到…的”,其ing形式的形容词都译为“令人(感到)…的”。以下带-ed形式的词的各个短语一般都译为“对…感到…”。


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